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Water Calculator (Optimal ranges suggested by La Marzocco)

Perform test by analyzing COLD water samples taking BEFORE any water treatment system, possibly directly from the water mains.

DO NOT TEST ANY WATER FROM THE GROUPS OR STEAM BOILER.

Results on the calculator refer to chemical/physical behavior of water at 93° C (boiler temperature). e.g. A particular water might not be corrosive when cold, but very corrosive when at 93°C and 9bar of pressure.

Data Insert values MIN MAX
T.D.S. [ppm] 90150
Total hardness [ppm] 70100
Total iron (Fe+2/Fe+3) [ppm] 0 0.02
Free Chlorine (Cl2) [ppm] 00.05
Total Chlorine (Cl2) [ppm] 00.1
pH 6.58
Alkalinity [ppm] 4080
Chloride (Cl-) [ppm] 030
Langelier Saturation Index 0.10.7

La Marzocco recommends caution when using sodium and hydrogen based ion-exchange water softeners.
Suggested pressure and flow rate from water mains: 45 to 80 psi (3 to 5 bar) and 8 Liter per minute.

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P = particulate filter
C = carbon filter

Water Effects on Equipment
Suggested Water Treatment
Reverse Osmosis with Remineraliz (with P and C)
Softner (with P) OR Rev Osmosis with Bypass (with P and C)
Reverse Osmosis with Bypass (with P and C)
Carbon (with P)
Remineralization (with P)
Particulate 5 micron minimum
pHs
A
B
C
D
Temperature
Ionic Strength
Activity Coeff (m)
Activity coeff (d)
Ca (moles/L)
Alk (moles/L)
pK2
K2
K2'
pK2'
pKs
Ks
Ks'
pKs'
pCa
pHs
Scale will form
Light Scale Potential
Balanced but pitting corrosion possible in presence of chlorides
Slightly corrosive but non-scale forming
Heavy Corrosion
Corrosion Intolerable

Concentration of H+ and OH- ions in a substance, telling how acidic or alkaline that substance is.
More acidic solutions have lower pH (higher concentration of H+ ions).
More alkaline solutions have higher pH (higher concentration of OH- ions).
pH of 7 is Neutral, which is an ideal value for water for a superior espresso brew.


LA MARZOCCO SUGGESTED PH: BETWEEN 6,5 AND 8

pH higher than 8
Effects on espresso: over-extracted, sapid espressos, with low aroma, very low pleasant acidity and unpleasant bitter taste, low sweetness.
Effects on equipment: if high pH is due to high salinity in combination with low hardness, corrosion phenomenon will quickly appear.
If pH is due to high hardness, boiler will be prone to scale build-up.

pH lower than 6,5
Effects on espresso: unpleasant sour taste.
Effects on equipment: greater concentration of H+ ions will increase the corrosive potential of the water against boilers and pipelines.

Total Dissolved Solids are the total content of organic and inorganic dissolved substances that may be found in a solution, like minerals, salts or metals dissolved in a given volume of water, expressed mg/L, also referred to as parts per million (ppm).

SUGGESTED LA MARZOCCO TDS RANGE: BELOW 150PPM

TDS higher than 150ppm:
Effect on espresso: unbalanced body and acidity, low aromas, harsh taste.
Effects on equipment: minerals build-up and slime into boilers.

TDS lower than 75ppm:
Effects on espresso: weak body, tart taste.
Effects on equipment: water becomes aggressive against espresso equipment’s materials and speed up corrosion phenomenon caused by other additional factors.

The reflection of concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions PLUS other minerals in a solution. Hardness as measured by the La Marzocco test kit is expressed in parts per million (ppm), where one part per million is defined as one milligram calcium carbonate (CaCO3) per litre of water.
Calcium Carbonate is the main constituent responsible for limescale build up.


LA MARZOCCO SUGGESTED HARDNESS RANGE: 70 TO 90 PPM

Total Hardness higher that 150ppm:
Effect on espresso: over-extraction, harsh and bitter taste.
Effect on equipment: excessive limescale build-up.

Total Hardness lower than 90ppm:
Effects on espresso: flat body, low aromatics, little or no crema, unpleasant acidity.
Effects on equipment: water becomes aggressive and may cause/speed up corrosion in combination with other additional factors.

High iron will give to coffee (with added milk) a greenish tint and a bitter/metallic flavour. Water in the boilers may be rusty in colour.

Chlorine (Cl2) is a chemical element that is a very inexpensive, effective and readily available disinfectant used by municipalities to kill bacteria present in the water, thus preventing the spread of waterborne diseases. CAN BE REMOVED ONLY BY ACTIVE CARBON FILTERS.

Effects on espresso: combines with coffee’s phenolic compounds causing a distinctive medicinal taste.
Effects on equipment: increases corrosive potential of the water.

Chloride is an ion of chlorine. It occurs when chlorine gains an electron becoming Cl-
The most commonly known chloride is NaCl (SODIUM CHLORIDE) also known as TABLE SALT, which is very soluble in water.
VERY COMMON IN COASTAL AREA AND GROUND WATER SUPPLIES, CHLORIDES CAN ONLY BE REMOVED BY REVERSE OSMOSIS


Chloride higher than 30ppm:
Effects on espresso: increase the perception of sourness and enhance phenolic compounds and astringency.
Effects on equipment: chlorides cause severe phenomenon of pitting corrosion.

Chlorine (Cl2) is a chemical element that is a very inexpensive, effective and readily available disinfectant used by municipalities to kill bacteria present in the water, thus preventing the spread of waterborne diseases. CAN BE REMOVED ONLY BY ACTIVE CARBON FILTERS.

Effects on espresso: combines with coffee’s phenolic compounds causing a distinctive medicinal taste.
Effects on equipment: increases corrosive potential of the water.

Alkalinity (40-80)
Alkalinity refers to the capability of water to neutralize acid.
Usually alkalinity is measure through analyzing the Carbonate hardness caused by the presence of carbonate (CO2- 3) and bicarbonate (HCO- 3) anions.
These solids usually precipitate at temperature close to boiling temperature, causing what is commonly known as limescale.
Is usually expressed either as parts per million (ppm or mg/L), or in degree KH (dKH) One degree KH corresponds to the carbonate and bicarbonate ions found in a solution of approximately 17.848 milligrams of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3) per litre of water (17.848 ppm).

LANGELIER SATURATION INDEX by keeping into consideration pH, hardness, alkalinity and water temperature, the Langelier formula determines whether the water will have a tendency to scale or corrode.

Effects on espresso: water will form mineral deposits.
Effects on equipment: water will be likely to dissolve minerals and attack metals.